When Scratch-off questions mode is enabled, multiple choice questions reveal only whether the selected answers is correct after submitting. This is also known as the Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique (IF-AT), which is fundamental to the Team Based Learning pedagogy.

How to enable

This option is available on a quiz module. When enabled it applies the scratch-off question mode for all multiple choice questions. Note that this mode isn't available for open-questions, and hence can't be enabled when the quiz contains open questions.

The pedagogy

If the selected answer was incorrect, this is revealed to the student, but the other answers remain veiled. This gives the student limited information that challenges them to carefully identify the false assumptions in their previous decision-making. The student can retry by selecting another answer, but has lost half of the points. When correct they can still save the remaining 50% of the score that's available. But if they miss again, they lose again half of the available score. This halving of the reward continues until the student has exhausted the options. For the last remaining answer no grade is rewarded considering this is no better than guesswork. This grading mode is known decremental scoring, and is integral to scratch-off questions.

Decremental scoring preview

Decremental scoring provides an incentive structure that drives students to be careful and deliberate in their judgement skills, while also incentivizing continued engagement after initial failure. This is an advantage over the traditional multiple choice question mode, where the student has no incentive to engage after failure. It's a missed learning opportunity for students when they simply neglect to engage by moving to the next question without further consideration. Decremental scoring rewards the opposite, and by doing so promotes the skill of learning from failure and an attitude of willingness to change one's mind based on new evidence. Skills that are critical to train for employment in today's fast-paced job market and information economy.

Benefits when applied in Team Based Learning

Answering questions in teams introduces several valuable social dynamics. With regular multiple choice question answering, there will often be a dominant member of a group that drives decision-making. This however often creates a decision bias toward that vocal group member, with more introverted members and their input neglected. This dynamic prevents a team for leveraging all available expertise and intelligence in the group. By enabling scratch-off mode an initial failure actually creates a valuable moment where the group is incentivized to reconsider their process. This is a moment when the more quiet group have a more easy opportunity to speak up and let their insights can bubble to the surface. Dominant group members can realize the value of hearing them out and tempering their dominance, for example by being more careful not to dismiss less vocal group members. Dominant players learn the value of being a facilitator that brings out the maximum expertise from the group, while more introverted members have an opportunity to practice their speech and realize the value of contributing their knowledge and insights to the group.

When a team has members that are emotionally invested in a belief, IF-AT can be a valuable way for team members to practice the attitude of changing their beliefs in face of new evidence. This can be very effective to overcome the sensitivities around avoiding confrontation and challenging each other's beliefs. Applied in Team Based Learning (TBL) this often leads to effective teams where the new norm to them become "more important to be right, rather than polite". In TBL this has been so effective in building healthy expert groups where all members can bring out their potential, that the worst team typically outperform the best student. In 20 years of results Michaelsen (1989) found that in TBL, 99.95% of teams outperformed their best member by an average of 14%.

FeedbackFruits considers the cultivation of attitudes like willingness to change one's mind in face of new evidence essential and underappreciated for healthy democratic functioning. Our emphasis on cultivating critical thinking skills is one of the reasons why we've invested in Team Based Learning, and are making sure that Scratch-off questions are available anywhere in our toolsuite. Hence, teachers will also be able to use these for example in an Interactive Video that covers a debate.

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